Software

Programming languages – different types of programming languages

Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, and many more still are being created every year. Many programming languages require computation to be specified in an imperative form (i.e., as a sequence of operations to perform) while other languages use other forms of program specification such as the declarative form (i.e. the desired result is specified, not how to achieve it).

programming-languages

A programming language is a type of language used to give set of instructions to a computer. It is a way a computer program interacts with a computer and gives it a set of instruction as input so that the computer can produce a desired output. Computer programs are created through programming languages to control the behaviour and output of a machine through accurate algorithms.

Computer program are generally written using a high-level language which is understandable by humans. It contains words and phrases from the English (or other) language. But a computer does not understand high-level language. It only understands program written in the machine code i.e. in 0’s and 1’s (binary system). A program written in high-level language is called a source code. We need to convert the source code into machine code and this is accomplished by compilers and interpreters.

A compiler or an interpreter is a program that converts program written in high-level language into machine code understood by the computer.

Compiler – A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular programming language and turns them into machine language

Interpreter – In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language

Object-oriented programming

Object-oriented programming is a programming technique constructed around objects instead of procedures. Objects are at the heart of object-oriented programming, unsurprisingly. These can be arranged into classes, which enable distinct objects to be grouped together. It is a programming paradigm based on the concept of “objects”, which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods.

OOP languages

Java

Python

Ruby

C++

Visual Basic .NET

Objective-C

However different programming languages are designed for performing different functions like front-end, back-end, programming languages for smart phones apps.

 

Front-end development

The frontend is what you see and interact with on your browser. Also referred to as “client-side”, it includes everything the user experiences directly: from text and colours to buttons, images, and navigation menus.

Programming languages used for front end

JavaScript, HTML, CSS

Backend development

The backend (or “server-side”) is the portion of the website you don’t see. It’s responsible for storing and organizing data, and ensuring everything on the client-side actually works. The backend communicates with the front-end, sending and receiving information to be displayed as a web page

Programming languages used for back end

Ruby on Rails, Python, SQL, PHP, Java

 

Programming languages for smart phones

Android apps

Java

Google’s Android, has its own programming language of choice: Java. This OOP language was developed many years ago by Sun Microsystems but has since gained popularity because of its versatility. Java enables developers to build code that can run in multiple environments. Java allows developers to write code once and use it anywhere through virtual machines on different platforms, accelerating apps’ development and deployment processes.

Kotlin

Kotlin was recently introduced as a secondary “official” Java language. It is similar to Java in many ways but is a little easier to get your head around.

C++

Android Studio also supports C++ with the use of the Java NDK. This allows for native coding applications, which can be handy for things like games.

XML

Basically, xml is used for layout designing.
All the UI and layout of your android app is designed using xml.
Unlike Java (which is Back Bone of your app), xml helps you to design your app, how it will look, how components like buttons, textview, etc will be placed and their styling.

Apple iOS apps

Objective-C

Long ago, Apple appointed Objective-C as its official programming language for apps running on mobile and desktop (MacOS) operating systems. Objective-C is an object-oriented programming language. This means that the code is written around distinct “objects” that contain their own data and logic, as opposed to one long string of code that combines both elements.

Swift

Though Objective-C has been a reliable language for developers who write apps for Apple platforms, it has deep roots in the pre-mobile era. After recognizing a need for a more modern programming language, Apple unveiled Swift, which basically is an improved, easier-to-learn successor to Objective-C. The company created this language to work with Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, their application programming interfaces for OS X and iOS, respectively.

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