CPU – Central Processing Unit is called as the brain of the computer. Brain? Yes, as a human body is controlled by human brain, everything in a computer is controlled by the computers’ brain that is by a CPU.
CPU is a chip inside your computer having its place in the motherboard. While performing vast amount of tasks ( hundreds of thousands of tasks per second), CPU produces a large amount of heat, this heat must be expelled out from CPU to make it run smoothly. For this task heat sink fan is placed just above the CPU to keep it cool all the time. So you can find CPU below the heat sink fan on the motherboard of your computer.
CPU is called as brain of the computer because it controls all the task and instruction given to a computer by programs. CPU do this by by basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output operations specified by the instructions given by a program.
CPU (Central Processing Unit) has three components.
- Memory unit
- Control unit
- Arithmetic logic unit
1) Memory unit and Processor registers
Processor registers are the locations that are quickly accessible by the CPU (Central Processing Unit). Processor registers are the fastest memory in a computer. They are of small amount and usually contains some specific hardware functions or in some case may contain main memory addresses.
Processor registers take data from the larger memories in the computer so that CPU can perform arithmetic operations on it, this manipulated data is then transferred to the main memory. Main memory is usually a RAM (Random Access Memory).
2) Control Unit
As the name suggests, Control unit in a CPU controls everything working inside it. Control unit doesn’t store any data or perform any kind of calculation or processing of data, it just controls how everything works in a computer.
- It controls how data is transferred from memory devices to the CPU.
- It controls the instruction given by computer programs to the CPU, manipulate the data accordingly and controls working of a computer.
- It communicates with the input/output devices to take input data and gives out the results.
3) Arithmetic logic unit
Arithmetic logic unit in a CPU is a complex circuitry that performs arithmetic and bitwise (operating on individual bits) logic operation. The input to ALU is the data to be operated on called as operand and the instructions in the form of code indicating the operation to be performed. Some CPU have ALU as divided into Arithmetic units and logic units.
Arithmetic unit perform functions like addition, subtraction.
Logic unit performs bitwise logic operations like AND, OR, XOR.
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